Ripe grapes are left on the skins for about 10-12 days. Fermentation takes place at controlled temperatures of 27-28°C. Pumping-over is performed frequently for a short while, and the saignée or "bleeding off" technique is used to increase the richness of noble polyphenols. Once removed from the skins, wine is kept in steel containers to complete malolactic fermentation. Then wine is aged in French and American oak barrels for 10 months.